(Auszug aus "XSL-FO ― Die Referenz" von Manuel Montero Pineda & Steffen Herkert, 2016, dpunkt.verlag)

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Category Ligature

Specifies whether to perform the ligature processing.

Value: none | [ latin || kana ] | all | auto
Initial: auto
Applies to: all block-level and inline-level formatting objects
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A

Values have the following meanings.

none The ligature processing is not performed.
latin Processes the ligature in European languages. It is processed when the scripts are the followings.
  • Latn
  • Grek
  • Cyrl

kana Processes the ligature of Kana + semivoiced sound symbol in JIS X 0213:2004 as follows.
  • U+304B + U+309A
  • U+304D + U+309A
  • U+304F + U+309A
  • U+3051 + U+309A
  • U+3053 + U+309A
  • U+30AB + U+309A
  • U+30AD + U+309A
  • U+30AF + U+309A
  • U+30B1 + U+309A
  • U+30B3 + U+309A
  • U+30BB + U+309A
  • U+30C4 + U+309A
  • U+30C8 + U+309A
  • U+31F7 + U+309A
Although the ligature of European languages and the ligature of symbols are included in JIS X 0213:2004, these are processed by ligature-mode="latin".
all latin and kana are considered to be specified.
auto Dependent on the system setting.

The ligature processed here is the ligature defined in the font itself. The ligature defined in Unicode are not processed. (It is called Canonical Composition) In order to normalize ligatures defined in Unicode Standard, specify axf:normalize="nfc". Note that axf:normalize will not be effective with AH Formatter V6.3 Lite.

You can specify whether ligatures for European languages are performed or not by latin-ligature in the Option Setting File. These can also be set in the Option Setting dialog in GUI.

XSL-FO sample:

<fo:root xml:lang="en" xmlns:fo="" xmlns:cpfo="" xmlns:svg="" xmlns:axf="">

Antenna House, Inc.

Ligatures in Alphabets

Specifies whether the specific characters are being combined with the ligature in Latin font. When axf:ligature-mode is specified as latin, European glyph that the European font has will be used in European language (including Greek letters and Cyrillic letters).


fi ffi fl ffl ft Th


fi ffi fl ffl ft Th



Download der Beispiele


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