# Content elements: card to curl

(Excerpt from "The MathML Handbook" by Pavi Sandhu)

## card

#### Syntax

<apply><card /> *set*</apply>

#### Description

The card element represents the cardinality of a set; that is, the number of elements contained in the set.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## cartesianproduct

#### Syntax

<apply><cartesianproduct /> *set1 set2*</apply>

#### Description

The cartesianproduct element represents the Cartesian product of two or more sets.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## ceiling

#### Syntax

<apply><ceiling /> *number*</apply>

#### Description

The ceiling element represents the smallest integer greater than or equal to the number specified as an argument.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## ci

#### Syntax

<ci>...</ci>

#### Description

The ci element is used to represent objects such as functions, variables, and symbolic constants. The type of the object is specified using an attribute. To allow precise control over rendering, this element can contain any arbitrary presentation markup.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding. In addition, it accepts the one attribute shown in the following table.

*Table: Attribute of ci.*

Name | Values | Default |
---|---|---|

type | string | real |

The type attribute specifies the type of object encoded. It can be set to any string, including the names of MathML container elements (such as set, list, vector, matrix, and fn).

## cn

#### Syntax

<cn>...</cn>

#### Description

The cn element is used to represent numerical constants. The type of the number and its base are specified via attributes. Rational, complex, and floating-point numbers require the different parts of the number to be separated by a sep element.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding. In addition, it accepts the two attributes shown in the following table.

*Table: Attributes of cn.*

Name | Values | Default |
---|---|---|

type | real | integer | rational | floating-point | constant | complex-polar | complex-cartesian | e-notation | real |

base | Integer between 2 and 36 | 10 |

These attributes have the following meaning:

- type: specifies the type of number encoded.
- base: specifies the base of the number being encoded.

## codomain

#### Syntax

<apply><codomain /> *function*</apply>

#### Description

The codomain element represents the codomain of a function; that is, a set that contains all values taken by the function. The codomain is also referred to as the range.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## complexes

#### Syntax

<complexes />

#### Description

The complexes element represents the set of all complex numbers. It has the default rendering C.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## compose

#### Syntax

<apply><compose /> (*function*)+</apply>

#### Description

The compose element is used for composing two functions. The result is a new function whose range is the same as the range of the first function and whose domain is the same as the domain of the second function.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## condition

#### Syntax

<condition><apply> ... </apply></condition>

or

<condition><reln> ... </reln></condition>

#### Description

The condition element is used to encode conditional statements; that is, statements involving the phrase "such that".

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## conjugate

#### Syntax

<apply><conjugate /> *arg1*</apply>

#### Description

The conjugate element represents the complex conjugate of a complex number specified as an argument.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## cos

#### Syntax

<apply><cos /> *arg*</apply>

#### Description

The cos element represents the trigonometric cosine function.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## cosec

#### Syntax

<apply><cosec /> *arg*</apply>

#### Description

The cosec element represents the trigonometric cosecant function.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## cosech

#### Syntax

<apply><cosech /> *arg*</apply>

#### Description

The cosech element represents the hyperbolic cosecant function.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## cosh

#### Syntax

<apply><cosh /> *arg*</apply>

#### Description

The cosh element represents the hyperbolic cosine function.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## coth

#### Syntax

<apply><coth /> *arg*</apply>

#### Description

The coth element represents the hyperbolic cotangent function.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## csymbol

#### Syntax

<csymbol> ... </csymbol>

#### Description

The csymbol element is used to define new objects such as constants and functions, which cannot be represented using the existing content elements. To allow precise control over rendering, it can contain any arbitrary presentation markup. The meaning of the object is defined using the definitionURL and encoding attributes.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

## curl

#### Syntax

<apply><curl /> *function*</apply>

#### Description

The curl element represents the curl operator of vector calculus.

#### Attributes

This element accepts the attributes definitionURL and encoding.

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